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 Biology Paper 2, Nov/Dec 2009
 Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Main
Weakness/Remedies
Strength

Question 8

)    What is refuse?               ( 2 marks)

(b)    Briefly explain four methods of refuse disposal      ( 4 marks)

(ii)     one disadvantage of each method named in 8(b)                      (8 marks)

(d)     State six functions of the Red Cross Society.                      ( 6 marks)

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OBSERVATION

Even though more candidates attempted this question their scores were generally poorer in this number.  Most of the candidates could define refuse and explain four methods of refuse disposal but few of them could state one advantage and one disadvantage of each method named.  Only in the case of incineration/burning, most of the candidates could state that pollution was a disadvantage but none of them could state the advantages.

 S/N METHOD ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES 1 Dust bins -    Cheap -     Portable -     Easy to use Cannot contain much  refuse; Has to be emptied regularly; Attracts pests/rodents/house flies Mosquitoes. 2. Pits -   Easy to use; -   Accommodates large     amounts of waste; -    Occupies land space; -     Attracts flies and       rodents/breeding ground       for pathogens; -     Emits offensive odours; -     May contaminate       surface water. 3. Burning/incineration -   Most hygienic        method of refuse        disposal; -    Reduces the volume       of refuse. -   Expensive to build and      operate; -   Emits offensive odour; -   Source of air pollution. 4. Composting -    Organic Refuse is       quickly broken        down/decomposed; -      Nutrients are         returned to the  soil; -     Source of manure. -    Inorganic refuse is not      easily broken       down/decomposed;   -    Requires land space;   -    Manual labour is       involved; 5. Land-fill -  To reclaim land;      Checks soil erosion;     Organic refuse quickly      decomposes;      Source of manure. -    Leads to land/soil      pollution; -   Attracts flies/rodents; -    Emits offensive odour; -    May contaminate water      bodies.

Most candidates who attempted the question could only state two functions of the Red Cross Society other answers are.

Functions of the Red Cross Society

-      provides care to accident victims;
-      distribute disaster relief items;
-      provides aid to soldiers/war victims;
-      provides community education on First Aid/HIV/AIDS;
-      organize safety drills in schools/workplaces;
-      provide care to motherless babies/establish  motherless babies homes/foster homes
-      Provides aids to veterans/ex-service men;
-      serves as a neutral intermediary during wars and conflicts.