This question was a popular question in this section and most candidates attempted it.
Most candidates had a fair idea of the two types of germination namely hypogeal and epigeal
and could state examples but many candidates lost marks due to spelling errors and some
candidates mixed up the example for each type. Only few candidates could describe a simple
experiment to show that oxygen water and warmth are necessary for germination of seeds.
Majority of the candidates performed poorly in this sub-question. Many of them could not
correctly name the necessary apparatus, give an outline of the experiment in a sequential
manner and describe the control experiment.
Expected answers include:
Experiment to demonstrate factors necessary for germination
Some dry cotton wool are placed at the bottom of each of conical flasks labeled A,B,C, and D.
in flask A, few/2 to 4 been seeds are placed on dry cotton wool; the flask is placed
in a warm place;
in flask B the cotton wool is moistened together with the seeds in it;
test tube containing pyrogallic acid and caustic soda/pyrogallol is suspended in
flask B; to absorb oxygen; flask B is put in a warm place;
in flask C a little water is placed on the cotton wool and seeds and it is placed in a
in flask D a little water is poured on the seeds to moisten them and it is placed in the
the four flasks are observed for four to five days/few days; only the seeds in flask C
germinated. This shows that oxygen, water/moisture and warmth are necessary for
Most candidates could correctly state characteristic features of epiphytes and parasitic as
well as give examples of parasitic plants. A few candidates however lost marks due to