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Biology Paper 2, May/jun 2010  
Questions:   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8   Main
General Comments
Weakness/Remedies
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Question 8

(a)Explain the term adaptation in relation to the mode of life of an organism. [2 marks]
(b) Explain how each of the following structures adapt the organisms that posses them to
their modes of life:
(i) succulent leaves in Aloe sp.;
(ii) succulent stems and reduced leaves in cactus plants;
(iii)short, strong beaks in fowls;
(iv)counter shading in fish;
(iv)tiny scale leaves on needle-like branches of pine trees. [lOmarks]
(c) (i) What is population?
(ii) State five effects of overpopulation on a community. [5 marks]

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OBSERVATION

This question was the less popular one in this section; however candidates who attempted it performed fairly.
Most of the candidates who attempted the question could correctly define adaptation as special features/characteristics that an organism possesses; which enable it to live/survive successfully; in an environment.
Most of the candidates could also explain how the listed organisms are adapted to their modes of life with the exception of counter shading in fishes. Expected answers include; The dorsal side of the fish is dark while the ventral side is silvery/counter shading;
This dual coloration protects the fish from predators; looking at them from above and below the water.
Most of the candidates could correctly define population and state effects of overcrowding in a community.

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