Many candidates attempted this question and their performance in it was poor.
In part (a) some candidates wrote on the performance of water transport but did not relate their answers to international trade as required by the question. The candidates were expected to answer their questions with the following points:
- covers long distances, thus linking all continents for trade purposes
- cheapest means of transporting goods and services:
- carries bulky goods
- has natural route, so little or no cost on construction of routes except on harbour
- maintenance cost of harbour is low
- can transport variety of goods
- relatively safe
- available for all nations.
In part (b) most candidates gave good account of limitations of water transportation.
In part (c) some candidates could not relate preferred solutions to the limitations in part (b). They were expected to suggest solutions to the limitations outlined in part (b) as follows:
- the problem of low speed for perishable goods could be solved by use of refrigerated vessels/compartments to transport such goods;
- countries without coastlines and ports (land locked countries) could be made accessible by constructing canals to reach them;
- the problem of seasonality of some rivers could be solved by continuous dredging of water ways and ports and also by construction of dams and locks;
- the problem of high cost of acquiring ship could be solved by granting of soft loans for acquisition of ship and construction and maintenance of ports, and so on.