This was a very unpopular question and the few candidates who attempted it performed poorly. The 19th century Benin rulers included: Oba Osemwede, Obanosa, Adolo and Ovonramwen while the vassal states included: Lagos, Ekiti, Itsekiri, Afemai, Ishana and Urhobo.
To score high marks in (b) part, the candidates were expected to identify the following points:
(i) succession disputes;
(ii) extensive size of the empire;
weakness of the army;
the rise of Ibadan which challenged Benin’s authority in her vassal states of Ekiti and Akure;
presence of the British in Lagos, etc.