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 Geography Paper 1 ,May/June 2009
 Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Main
Weakness/Remedies
Strength

Question 2

(a) Describe any three of the following survey instruments:
(i) ranging poles;
(ii) chain;
(iii) cross staff;
(iv) arrows.
(b) Outline the processes involved in carrying out chain survey.
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Observation

This was an unpopular question among the candidates. Their performance on the (a ) part of the question was poor. Many of the candidates could not describe the survey instruments properly. Candidates should devote  special attention to the segment on surveying since it is a vital aspects of the  geography curriculum.  Schools should purchase these instruments and put them to practical use. A description of each of the survey instrument is given below:
Ranging poles:

• made of light poles of circular section which is between 25 to 30 mm in diameter
• has iron shoe at one end to allow it to be fixed into the ground
• the poles are made of light metals or seasoned wood
• painted in alternate bright colours as white, red and black to make it visible from afar
• a ranging pole is between 1.8m – 3m in length

Chain:

• formed by 100 pieces of wire
• there is brass handle for holding  at the end of the chain
• the handle forms part of the distance
• the chain has 10 links
• the chain can be 66ft or 100ft; 20m or 30m long
• at every metre of the chain, there is a brass tag or tally to aid reading
• every 5m and 10m of the chain also carries a different tag for identification

Cross staff:

• the head is mounted on a shortened version of a ranging pole
• consist of cross with vertical end members
• each has slits
• the line of sight is between cross at right angles
• the arms are turned upwards at the ends

Arrows:
• thin painted steel wire
• has pointed metal markers
• about 381 mm or 15in long
• bent at the top into a ring
• to which red pieces of clothes can be attached to make them more visible
• painted in bright colours to make them easily visible

The processes involved in carry out chain surveying are:

• reconnaissance survey of the area
• sketch map
• chain survey requires a surveyor and two assistants
• surveyor stays at the starting point and a station is fixed
• a lead chainman is in front while the other holds the chain at the zero end.
• leader carries arrows and ranging poles
• with the poles, he aligns the points and moves the chain to line
• when the chain is steady at the zero point on a station A, the lead chainman fixes an arrow at the end of the chain length
• the leader then drags the chain towards the target station
• the distances measured are entered into the field notebook
• offsets are indicated
• The measured distances and offsets are plotted.