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Health Science Paper 1, May/June 2009  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Main
General Comments

Question 7

(a)        What is  malnutrition?                                                                                 [2 marks]

(b)       State five ways of preventing tooth decay.                                                 [5 marks]

(c)       State three causes of constipation.                                                             [3 marks]




This question was attempted by many candidates but their performance was poor. In part (a)((i) candidates could not write HIV in full. In part (a)(ii) candidates could not distinguish between HIV and AIDS.  Instead candidates regarded HIV as a disease and AIDS as virus.  In part (b) candidates could not name water-borne diseases caused by worms instead they mentioned diseases like cholera and ringworm etc.  In part (c) candidates mixed up the control of general diseases with water borne diseases.
The expected answers were as follows:

(a)(i)    HIV in full.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus.   

      (ii)  Distinguish between HIV and AIDS
            -           HIV is the virus and AIDS is the disease caused by the virus.      

  1. Water – borne diseases caused by worms
  2. River blindness/onchocerciasis;
  3. guinea worm;
  4. hookworm;
  5. schistosomiasis/bilharziasis.

 Control of Water-borne diseases

  • avoid bathing in water/streams/rivers/ponds/named;
  • avoid sleeping in the open/use of net/protective clothing/insect repellent;
  • flowing streams should be sprayed with insecticide,
  • drinking water should be boiled/filtered;
  • use of appropriate drugs;
  • proper disposal of faeces and urine;
  • general sanitation/proper disposal of refuse/general cleanliness.
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