This question was attempted by many candidates and the performance was fair. In part (a) (i) and
(ii) candidates could not explain the terms shock and fainting correctly however, some candidates
lost marks due to misplacement of definition of shock for fainting and fainting for shock. In part (b)
(i) candidates could not state symptoms of shock correctly, in (b) (ii) candidates lost marks due to
their inability to outline the steps taken in the first aid treatment of shock victims. In part (c)
candidates explain khyphosis and scoliosis correctly because of their constant familiarity with the
terms. In part (d) candidates also explained dislocation and sprain due to their familiarity.
(a) Explanation of the following terms
It is a dangerous condition arising from severe injury or emotional strain that prevents
enough oxygenated blood to reach vital organs of the body e.g. brain, heart.
Is temporary loss of consciousness due to reduced supply of oxygenated blood to the
(b) (i) Symptoms of shock
cold clammy skin/sweating
- weak rapid pulse
fainting/loss of consciousness
(ii) Steps taken in first aid treatment of shock victim
correct the cause of the shock e.g control bleeding, disconnect electricity source etc.
keep victim lying down on his back
keep air passage open
if vomiting turn head to one side
keeping head lower than body by elevating legs if no bone is broken
reassure the victim/calm victim down
avoid over crowding
take to hospital/consult a doctor
(c) Explanation of the following terms
This is an exaggeration of the backward curve, of the thoracic vertebrae, in extreme
cases it is known as hunchback.
This is the lateral curvature of the spine in the upper or lower part of the spine.
(d) Explanation of the following terms
It is an injury which occurs when bones at ajoint move away from its original
position/displacement of one or more bones at the joint.
An injury/wrenching or tearing of ligaments or other structures in a joint.