Health Science Paper 2, May/June 2011  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 Main
General Comments

Question 2
  1.  State six causes of road accident                                                                      [6 marks]
  2.  Suggest five possible ways to reduce road accident.                                       [5 marks]
  3. Explain the following terms:
    (i) road signs;
    (ii) road safety education;
    (iii) pedestrians.                                                                                              [9 marks]




This questions was attempted by many candidates and their performance was good. 
In part (a) candidates correctly stated causes of road accident. 
In part (b) candidates also correctly suggested possible ways to reduce road accident. 
In part (c) candidates could not correctly explain the following terms:
(i) road signs;
(ii) road safety education;
(iii) pedestrians.
However, the expected answer were as follows:
2(a)    Causes of road accident

  •      over speeding of vehicles
  •      poor maintenance of vehicles
  •      overloading of vehicles
  •      use of drugs/stimulant by the  drivers
   illiteracy/inability to read road signs/warnings
  •      poor maintenance of roads
  •      nonchalant attitude of drivers/use of handset/smoking when driving
  •      sudden appearance of herds of cattle on the roads/other dangerous objects
  •      inadequate law enforcement agents on highway
  •      poor/defective sights of some drivers
  •      tiredness/fatigue of drivers
  •      bad weather condition                                  

  (b)    Possible ways to reduce road accident
           -     drivers should maintain minimum speed on highways
            -     road should be regularly maintained
            -     vehicles should not be overloaded
            -     drivers should avoid the use of drugs/stimulant while driving
            -     there should be proper education/orientation for drivers on road usage
             -      there should be enforcement of laws on herds of cattle roaming along
      the highways
             -      there should be adequate law enforcement agents/officers to control   
     drivers and other road users
-     road signs/warning should be placed at dangerous places on roads.
-     people with bad sight should not drive
-     avoid driving when fatigue/tired
-     provision of pedestrian/over load bridges                                         
(c)   Explanation of the terms
       (i)     Road signs:
These are the cautions, warnings/instructions, placed by/on the road       sides/highways; for the road users to avoid hazards/accident on the roads.           
      (ii)     Road safety education:
  These are hints/orientation,
  given to road users/drivers to  reduce hazards/accident;
  and have positive effect toward road safety.
   (iii)    Pedestrians:
These are the people/road users;
who walk along roads;
without the use of vehicles/motorcycles.


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