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Biology Paper 2,May/jun 2014  
Questions:   1 2 3 4 5 6   Main
General Comments

Question 6

(a)         State five reasons way animals move from place to place.     [5 marks]                    
(b)         State one function each of the following structures found in plants.

        (i)         epidermis:       
        (ii)        phloem;
        (iii)       sclernchyma.      [3 marks]                                                                    
(c)        Give two examples each of the following types of organisms:

(i)       parasitic plants;

(ii)      saprophytes.      [4 marks]                                           
(d)       State two adaptive feature of plants which inhabit salt water swamp.          [4 marks]                    
(e)        State two factors each which result in:

        (i)         increase:

        (ii)        decrease, in population density.       [4 marks]
(f)        Mention four ways in which modern agricultural activities may threaten the survival of species.      [4 marks]                                                         
(g)        State three reasons why mitosis is important to living organisms.       [3 marks]        

(h)        State three causes of food spoilage.      [3 marks]




Candidates answered questions 6(a), (b) and (c) satisfactorily.  Majority could not
completely express themselves in other questions

The expected answers are:    
               (c)        Examples of Organisms
                                  (i)       Parasitic plants
                                    Viscum/Mistletoe; dodder plant/Cassytha; Cuscuta; Phytophthor; 
Peronospora (any correctly named example)        Note:  Spelling must be correct to score

                        (ii)        Saprophytes
                                    Bacteria; fungi/Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus; Mushroom/
                                    Agaricus (any correctly named example)
                                    Note:  Spelling must be correct to score

               (d)        Adaptive features of plants in salt water swamps
                                 -    succulent stem/root/store water; to dilute the salt;
                        -     presence of pneumatophores/breathing roots; for breathing atmospheric
                        -     air/oxygen;
              -     presence of stilt roots; for anchorage;
                        -    viviparous seedling; to ensure their survival/continuity;
                        -    some secrete excess salt into swamps; to maintain balance of body salt.
               (e)     Ways modern agricultural activities may threaten the survival of species
        -    Deforestation/commercial farming destroys habitats of species;
        -    Destruction/loss of natural vegetation/habitat;
        -    Over hunting of games reduces population of species;    
        -    Improper/Indiscriminate application of  chemical/
             salanization/eutrophication/pesticides destroys species;
        -    Lack of afforestation practices;
        -    Inappropriate fishing methods threaten the population of fish.


(f)      Reasons why mitosis is important to living organisms
      -     It ensures growth;
      -     Involved asexual reproduction e.g fission, budding, spore formation;
      -     Ensures retention of diploid condition;
     -      Repair of tissues within organisms;
     -      Transfer of exact genetic code from parents to offspring.
            (g)          Causes of food Spoilage
    -       Microbial attacks by bacteria or fungi/or saprophytic action;
    -        Pest attack by beetles, weevils that destroy stored grains;
    -        Improper storage which results in deterioration and spoilage of stored foods.
    -        Destruction of stored fruits and meat by some worms, usually larva of flies;
   -         Delay in transportation due to bad roads;
   -         Lack of market facilities for the commodity;
   -         Poor harvesting method/damage to fruits/vegetables/tubers during harvesting;
   -         Poor unhygienic handling/processing/exposure to dust;
   -         Storage in contaminated containers;

   -         Use of contaminated water to wash food.



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