Civic Education Paper 2 May/June

Question 9

(a) Define national development.
(b) Explain four ways in which corruption has retarded the development of the
Nigerian State.


The question was the most unpopular with the candidates and very badly attempted. The few candidates that attempted it scored low marks. In the (a) part, they could not provide detailed explanations to attract high marks, they merely gave a general definition of development to connote progress or advancement in any endeavour. Even in the (b) part, their lack of good idea of what constitutes national development made it difficult for them to connect how corruption retarded it. The candidates were expected to provide the following answers to the question:

(a)        National development is the process by which a country improves the social and economic wellbeing of its citizens through the provision of amenities such as quality education, good roads, medical facilities and other social infrastructure.   

  1. It wipes out jobs.
  2. Corruption leads to inflation of prices of goods and services.
  3. It drains the economy of resources which would have been used for common good.
  4. It deepens the poverty level: the poor are denied services and basic facilities.
  5. It reduces the life span of citizens as mortality rate increases.
  6. It creates uncertainty and risk in growth and development of the country.
  7. Power struggles which lead to the neglect of core duties and loss of lives.
  8. Political instability which can lead to military coup and underdevelopment.
  9. Perversion of values/moral decadence in which the upright begin to doubt themselves.
  10. Nepotism/favoritism becomes the norm in the society. This retards productivity.
  11. It weakens social and governmental enforcement mechanism.
  12. It erodes national consciousness, pride and sense of commitment to national course.
  13. It promotes materialistic tendencies in citizens and erodes other core positive values of the nation.
  14. It increases crime rate in the society which distorts the environment conducive for development.
  15. It creates bad image for the country.