Health Science Paper 2, May/June 2011  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 Main
General Comments

Question 4

(a)  (i)   What is growth?                                                                                           [2 marks]
(ii) Mention five factors that affect growth and development in humans         [5 marks]
(b)   (i)   State two characteristics of correct posture                                                [2 marks]
       (ii)   State three determinants of correct posture                                               [3 marks]
(c)       Mention three causes of postural defects                                                       [3 marks]
(d)  State five characteristics of the mesomorphic body form                               [5 marks]



This question was attempted by few candidates and their performance was poor. in part (a)(i) candidates could not correctly define growth, in (a)(ii) candidates took sex as factor that affect growth and development in humans.  In part (b)(i) candidates could not correctly state characteristics of correct posture, in (b)(ii) candidates could not also state determinants of correct posture.  In part (c) candidates could not also mention causes of postural defects.  In part (d) majority of the candidates correctly answered the question.
  However, the expected answers were as follows
  (a)(i)   Growth
             Growth is the rapid changes/increase in size/mass volume in the human
             body as a result of cell division/addition of new cells.       
    (ii)   Factors that affect growth and development in humans            

            -     nutrition
            -     economic factor
            -     environment
            -     climate/weather
            -     heredity
            -     age
            -     sex
            -     psychological factor   
            -     some diseases e.g tuberculosis, worm infestation
            -     accident.                                               

(b)(i)     Characteristics of correct posture

               -     anatomical position/body in a straight position/walking/sitting/standing in
                     body alignment
               -     absence of deformity
               -     good health condition/normal functioning of organs.
      (ii)     Determinants of correct posture

              -     good habits in walking, standing and sitting correctly/anatomical position.
              -     eating balanced diet/nutrition
              -     exercise
              -     avoid the use of hard drugs                                                  

(c)     Causes of postural defects

  •   bad habits in walking, sitting and standing
  •   accidents/natural disasters
  •   congenital problem
  •   heredity
  •   diseases
  •   unbalanced diet/nutrition deficiency
  •   imitation.


(d)      Characteristics of the mesomorph

  •   possession of massive muscle
  •   powerful arms and legs
  •   large and heavy bones
  •   wider shoulder usually wider than their hips
  •   neck sometimes appear fairly long
  •   possession of square, hard and rugged body
  •   possession of coarse and thick skin.


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