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History Paper 2, Nov/Dec. 2009  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Main
General Comments
Question 6

Outline five events that led to the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate.


This was a fairly popular question.  However, the candidates could notdistinguish between events that led to the establishment of the Sokoto caliphate and the causes of the Sokoto jihad.  Majority of them based their
answers on the causes of the Sokoto jihad. To score high marks, theyshould have discussed the following points

  • Usman dan Fodio became very popular preaching against unislamic practices in Hasualand and gathered a large followership;
  • The attempt to arrest dan Fodio by Nafata failed and this led to the outbrfeak of the jihad;
  • The jihadists were victorious.  They killed Nafata, took over his government and declared an Islamic State;
  • This encouraged the Fulani scholars to rise against other Hausa rulers;
  • It became common practice for a Fulani scholar to travel to dan Fodio to obtain flag after which he  returned to his state to declare a jihad and deposed the Hausa ruler;
  • Within a short period, Islamic states were established all over Hausaland and the jihad leaders replaced Hausa rulers;
  • Hausa states became known as Emirates and the Fulani rulers as Emirs;
  • Dan Fodio built Sokoto as his new capital and seat of the caliphate.  The Emirs recognized him;
  • Fodio became the sultan and Amin-al-mumini and each of the Emirs went to Sokoto to swear allegiance to him.
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