This question was poorly attempted by the candidates. In 4(a), majority of the candidates were unable to state the methods of identification of farm animals as illustrated by diagrams I to V. Further to this, in 4(b), many of the candidates were unable to describe briefly how the method illustrated by diagram III could be carried out.
Also, in 4(c), majority of the candidates were unable to state problems that could result from each of the methods illustrated by diagrams II and III. Furthermore, many candidates could not suggest ways of preventing the occurrence of the problems associated with the method illustrated by diagram III.
However, in 4 (e) and (f), many candidates could name the equipment used for carrying out the method illustrated by diagram II and the material used for carrying out the method illustrated by diagram V.
Methods of identification illustrated by the diagrams
I - Ear tagging
II - Branding
III - Ear notching
IV - Neck tagging
V - Tatooing
Description of how the method of identification illustrated by diagram III (Ear notching) could be carried out.
- Restrain the animal properly first
- Clean animal ears with methylated spirit or wash with soap and disinfectant
- Dry with cotton wool or clean towel.
- Cut ears into different shapes of different sizes with a sterilized ear clipper/notcher
- Treat cut areas with methylated spirit
- Apply iodine tincture
- Keep animal in a comfortable place after operation to minimize the loss of blood and reduce stress
Problems due to Branding ( Diagram II)
- Damage to the skin of the animal thus reducing its value
- Burnt skin may develop into septic sores and serving as entry point for infectious diseases
- Animal may become agitated and dangerous to its handlers
- Animals may become restless due to disturbances from flies feeding on the wounds
Problems due to Ear Notching (Diagram III)
- Animal may bleed to death if blood does not clot on time
- Disease causing organisms may enter through the cuts
- It may be difficult to carry out, depending on the skill of the operator and the calmness
of the animal
- Animals are agitated and become restless
- The cut may attract flies
Preventing the occurrence of problems stated in C
- Brand animals in areas where the skin is less important like the neck area
- Treat cut surface or burnt skin with appropriate medication
- Animals should be branded or notched when still young to facilitate healing of the wounds and to reduce pain
- Animals branded or notched should be given antibiotics or anti-tetanus injection
- Sterilized/hygienic instruments should be used
- Operations must be done by an expert
Operations are preferably done early in the morning or late in the evening when the weather is cool to reduce stress