Visual Art Paper 1 ,May/June 2013  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Main
General Comments


Explain five ways in which Western art and culture have influenced African visual art.



This question attracted an insignificant number of candidates who also gave inappropriate responses. Most of the candidates that attempted this question demonstrated lack of its understanding while few of them intentionally diverted from the essence of the question. Rather than giving the expected points, some candidates were mentioning Western artists, art movements and periods, such as Picasso, Leonardo da Vinci, Renaissance, Cubism, Impressionism, etc. These made them to lose a substantial part of the obtainable marks. Candidates should have responded to the question thus:

1 Change in Philosophy Missionaries and colonial administrators effected a change in traditional belief in idols, spirits and rituals which provided opportunities for traditional African art. Consequently, the practice of indigenous art began to diminish.

2 Art styles Modern artists, under the influence of Western art now combine modern styles with traditional motifs to express themselves.

3 Change in purpose Arts, which were traditionally produced to serve religious and utility purposes, are now simply meant for aesthetics, utility or both.

4 Change in patronage Patrons of art have changed from being solely royalty and diviners to include expatriates, wealthy and educated individuals and corporate organisations, who now use art for aesthetics and self glorification.

5 Medium of production Technology has caused a great change in the medium of production of art; e.g oil colours, Plaster of Paris, fibre-glass, cement and computer are now used.

6 Mode of training Mode of training has changed significantly from informal (apprenticeship) to formal where curricula are developed and used for training.

7 Change in techniques The advent of Western art and culture has also engendered a change in techniques of art production, e.g. welding, modern method of casting. 8 Art forms Art forms were mainly sculpture, pottery, painting and architecture, but European influence has added other forms such as graphic design, photography, ceramics, etc.

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