Dyeing & Bleaching Paper 2, May/June 2014  
Questions: 1 2 3 4   Main
General Comments

Question 5


(a)        Define Printing
(b)        (i)         Mention six materials used in printing.
            (ii)        Identify three methods of printing.
(c)        Explain any two methods mentioned in 5(b)(ii) above.

The question was unpopular among the candidates and they performed fairly well in this question, though a few candidates could not adequately explain the methods of printing, this made them to lose some marks.  Candidates should have responded  thus:

(a)        It is the creation of patterns on fabric with dyes, pigments or other coloured           substances with the use of hand or machine.
            It is the transfer of an image/impression from one surface area onto another by the use       of colour, ink and pressure.
            It is the process of applying textile ink or paint to a fabric in order to produce patterns.
            It is the art of making marks/impressions on fabrics by pressing or stamping            paints/inks onto a surface as a means of reproducing designs or patterns.
(b)        (i)         Mesh, Squeegee, Frame, Roller, Exposing chemicals (e.g. Bichromate and
                        Emulsion), Retarder, Binder, Drawing paper/Tracing paper, Oil/Kerosene,                                      Chalk/Pencil, Motif, Fabric, Padded printing table, Stapling machine, Spoon,                                 Plastic bowl, Brushes, Hand drier, Lino cutter, Chisel, Thumb pins, Office                                    pins, Thread, Lamp, Rag, Foam, Ink, Pigment/colour, Masking tape,                                            Cellotape, Lino, e.t.c.   
            (ii)        Relief method, Intaglio method, Silk Screen method, Lino method,                                                Lithography method, Block method, Stenciling method, spraying method,                                     Splashing method, Dabbing method, Planographic method, Heat Transfer                                      method e.t.c.              

  1. Relief method:  The relief method of printing involves the creation of patterns or designs on a wood block.  The edges of the design are then chiselled off or scrapped to allow the designed area to stand out in relief.  The raised surface is then inked and pressed to register an impression on a fabric.


Intaglio method:  In the intaglio method, designs and patterns are made on a wood block and the designed areas are chiselled off to create hollow.  Ink is then spread on the wood block with the use of a roller and pressed onto the fabric to register an impression.  In this method, it is the hollowed surface that prints.

Silk Screen method:  This is a method of stretching silk mesh over a wooden frame, blocking out chosen areas by various methods and making a print by forcing ink through the unblocked areas.

Lino method:  This is a method in which a motif is drawn on a lino material and the unwanted area is cut out to make the motif stand out on the lino.  Ink is thereafter applied to the motif on the lino and hand-printed on a fabric to register the impression.

Lithography method:  This is a method of printing in which a piece of stone or metal is specially treated so that ink sticks to some parts of it and not to others.
Spraying method:  This is achieved by spraying mixed printing inks onto stencils or fabric with the use of manual sprayers such as biro cases, bamboo sticks or brushes.

Block method:  It is a hand operation and consist simply the application of design to the fabric by the use of a wood block.

                        Stenciling method:  This is the application of ink with the use of brush or foam                              on a cut-out material e.g. paper, carpet, cardboard, etc., by laying it on the                                      fabric to register an impression.

                        Splashing method:  This is the direct use of common materials such as                                             brooms, foams, etc. to scatter pigments or inks onto a fabric to register an                                       impression.

                        Planographic method:  This is the process of printing from a flat surface upon                                 which a thin layer of greasy ink has been deposited into the shape of an image.

                        Heat Transfer method:  This is a method where patterns are initially printed on                               sublimation or transfer papers.  These patterns are later registered onto fabrics                                by transferring heat with the use of hot iron.

                        Dabbing method:  This is a process of printing patterns from a cut-out                                             shape/stencil with the use of a foam/brush that transfers ink gently through the                               cut-out onto the fabric.


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