Health Science Paper 2, Nov/Dec. 2012  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 Main
General Comments

Question 3

  1. Question 3

    (a)   (i)   Make a large drawing of an anterior section of the  lumber vertebra and label fully.[7 marks]
           (ii)   Mention four other bones that belong to the vertebral column                                  [4 marks]

    (b)   Mention four disorders of the digestive system                                                                [4 marks]
    (c)    State five functions of the liver.                                                                                       [5 marks]



     This question was attempted by few candidates and their performance was good.  However, in part (a)(i) candidates  drew the wrong vertebra, thoracic instead of lumbar and they could  not correctly label with correct spellings and in (a)(ii) candidates correctly mention other bones that belong to the vertebral column.  In part (b) candidates correctly mention disorders of the digestive system.  In part (b) candidate correctly mention disorders of the digestive system.  In part (c) candidates correctly state functions of the liver.



The expected answers were as follows:

3 (a) (i)  Diagram of an anterior section of the lumbar vertebra
                   Title                                                                                              =   1 mark
                   Size   -   8 – 10 lines                                                                     =   1 mark
                   NL     -   Guide line should be ruled                                           =   ½ mark
           Guide line should not cross                                        =   ½ mark

                   Clarity of line   -  Drawing should be continuous                       =   ½ mark
                                                Drawing should not be woolly                       =    ½ mark










 Labels  -   articular  facet
                                          neural canal
                                          transverse process
                                          neural spine
                                          neural arch

  • Spellings must be correct to score                                          


(ii)        Other bones that belong to vertebra column

  •  atlas
  • axis
  • cervical
  • thoracic
  • sacral/sacrum
  • caudal/coccyx

           *       Spellings must be correct to score.

(b)        Disorders of the digestive system

  • peptic ulcer/duodenal ulcer/intestinal ulcer
  • constipation
  • gastritis/hyperacidity/gout
  • diverticular inflammation
  • appendicitis
  • dyspepsia/indigestion
  • hernia
  • halitosis
  • diarrhoea.

                        *    Spellings must be correct to score.

(c)        Functions of liver

  • regulation of blood sugar
  • production of bile
  • deamination of amino acids
  • detoxication of poisonous substances/compounds
  • production/generation of heat in the body
  • storage of iron in the body
  • formation of fibrinogen which helps in clothing of blood.
  • storage of vitamin e.g  B12 for formation of red blood corpuscles
  • storage of glucose as glycogen/conversion of glycogen to glucose
  • temporary storage of blood
  • produces Heparin.





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