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Biology Paper 2, Nov/Dec 2009  
Questions:   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8   Main
General Comments

Question 7

)     What is excretion?              (2 marks)

(b)      Make a diagram 10 -12cm long of the mammalian nephron and label fully.    (10 marks)

(c)       (i)   List three diseases of the kidney.         ( 3 marks)

           (ii)     List three effects of diseases of the kidney on its function                            (  3 marks)

          (iii)    Suggest two ways by which the effects listed in 7(c)(ii) above can be remedied.       ( 2 marks)




This was the less popular question in this section and few candidates attempted it.  The candidates who attempted it however were able to score fair marks.  Most candidates who attempted this question were able to correctly define excretion, list diseases of the kidney and state the effects of the diseases on the functions of the kidney.  However in drawing the nephron candidates who attempted the question lost marks due to not conforming to size specifications, not giving a title to this diagram,wrong spelling of labels e.g. many candidates wrote Bowman’s capsule with small letter b, and drawing of poor diagrams with loss of details.  Most candidates could not state how the effects of kidney diseases could be remedied expected  answers include:

Diagram of a nephron/ urinary tubule


-    Drinking copious water/plenty of water/water Therapy
-    Dialysis;
-     Surgery to remove kidney stones;
-     Kidney transplant to replace damaged kidney;
-     Controlled diet;
-     Drugs.

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