Visual Art Paper 2, Nov/Dec. 2014  
Questions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Main
General Comments



  1. Highlight five ways in which religion and kingship promoted art in ancient Egypt.
    This was another question that was avoided by the candidates. The few candidates that attempted it were not able to give the appropriate responses. Rather than state how kingship and religion had promoted art in Egypt, some of these candidates concentrated on Egyptian lettering and function of art in Egypt. This made them to lose a substantial component of the available marks. Candidates’ responses were expected to contain some of the following points:
    (a)        -              art objects were made to serve religious purpose.

    -           in ancient Egypt, art and architecture were created  to affirm a distinctive social, political and religious system.

    -           temples were decorated with paintings and filled with statues of gods and kings in the belief that doing this served the gods, showed devotion to the king and maintained the order of the universe.

    -           ancient Egyptians wore jewelry and amulets (charms) not only as fashion accessories but with the belief that the items protected them from harm..

    -           artworks were created for the pleasure of the kings, especially in the afterlife.

    -           religious beliefs largely dictated the themes of paintings and statues that filled ancient Egyptian temples and tombs.

    -           small bronze images of gods and of the animals that were sacred to those gods were made and presented as offerings at temples.

    -           brightly painted wooden statues of funerary gods were created and placed in tombs to help the deceased pass safely into the afterlife.

    -           in the old Kingdom, small chapels built in temple areas housed statues of the king where the royal ka-spirit could receive offerings.

    -           in the new kingdom, huge ka-statues of the king stood at the entrances to many major temples. Since most people could not enter the temples, these statues became places for people to communicate with the gods.

    -           in rock-cut tomb chapels, statues were carved out of the walls of the chapel and were visible to everyone entering to perform rituals.

    -           by the Middle Kingdom, statues of the deceased, both male and female had become the ritual focal point in chapels.

    -           from the Middle Kingdom onward, statues of the elite, mainly male, were also placed in the outlying areas of the temple complex to receive offerings and also to enable the statues owner (through his ka-spirit) to take part in the temple rituals and the great festivals that were celebrated on behalf of the deity of the temple.

    -           statues of servants and peasants appearing in a variety of poses, performing tasks such as grain grinding, bread baking and beer brewing were placed in tombs of the kings to serve them in the afterlife.

    -           the ancient Egyptians decorated the walls of temples and tombs with painted scenes.

    -           the sacred interiors of the temple were decorated with scenes depicting the king and gods together.

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