Agriculture Paper 2, WASSCE (PC 2ND), 2018

Question 4

(a)  Explain briefly two types of soil water.                                  (6 marks)

(b)  State four management practices carried out during the brooding of chicks.(4 marks)

(c)  Complete the table below on diseases of farm animals.       


Causal organism

Vaccine/drug administered

Marek’s disease





NDV La Sota







                 (8 marks)



This question was least popular among candidates because they avoided it.

  1. Few candidates that attempted this question could not mention and explain types of soil water.
  2. Candidates could however, state the management practices carried out during brooding.
  3. Nearly all candidates were unable to complete the table on diseases of farm animals. This demonstrated poor knowledge of animal diseases.



The expected answers include:

4. (a)   Explanation of types of soil water 
Gravitational water                                                                                                                                 
This is soil water held in macropores especially when the soil is saturated and drains out of the
soil by gravity. The water is unavailable for plant use.


Capillary water
This is water that is held by forces of surface tension in continuous films around soil particles in
the capillary/micropores. It is available for plant use.

Hygroscopic water
This is soil water that is held tightly to the surface of soil particles by adsorption forces. It is
very difficult to extract this water and is unavailable for plant use.              
(b)    Management practices carried out during the brooding of chicks

  • Sexing of chicks into male and female                          -      Feeding
  • Sorting out abnormal chicks                                          -      Provision of water
  • Drying of chicks immediately after hatching                -      Sanitation
  • Intra-ocular NDV vaccination/vaccination                    -      Drug administration
  • Provision of well ventilated housing                             -      Record keeping
  • Provision of warmth                                                      -      Deworming


   (c )   Completion of the table on diseases of farm animals

Name of disease

Causal organism

Vaccine/drug administered

Marek’s disease

(i)             Virus

(ii)    Marek disease vaccine/
HVT (Herpes Virus)

(iii) Newcastle disease

(iv)            Virus

NDV Lasota


(v)    Protozoa/Eimera spp

(vi)        Coccidiostat/
sulphur drugs


(vii)      Bacterium/
Bacillus anthracis

(viii)   Anthrax spore vaccine