Agriculture Paper 2, WASSCE (PC 2ND), 2018

Question 5

(a)   Discuss the cultivation of maize under the following headings.                             
            (i)   soil requirements;
            (ii)  method of propagation;
            (iii) spacing;
            (iv)  weed control;
            (v) two fungal diseases;
            (vi) harvesting.                                                                                                                 (10 marks)

(b)  Describe each of the following farm records:
(i)   production record;
(ii)  farm inventory;
(iii) cash book;
(iv) labour record                                                                                                              (8 marks)



  1. Most candidates could give the soil requirements and method of propagation for maize but were unable to describe the spacing, weed control, fungal diseases and harvesting of maize.
  2. Only few candidates were able to describe the selected farm records.



The expected answers include:
5. (a)   Cultivation of maize
(i)   Soil requirements

  • Well drained soil, rich in nutrients;
  • Sandy-loam soil;
  • Thrives on neutral or alkaline soil

(ii)  Method of propagation   

- Propagated by seed.


(iii) Spacing

  • 90cm x 30cm at one seed per hole/stand;
  • 75cm x 25 cm at two seeds per hole/stand.


(iv)  Weed control

  • Done manually with cutlass and hoe;
  • Done 2-3 times on the farm at regular intervals;
  • Could also be done mechanically with implements pulled by animals;
  • Herbicides could also be used.


(v)   Two fungal diseases

  • Corn smut;
  • Maize rust;
  • Leaf spot

    (vi)  Harvesting

  • On  a low/small scale, could be harvested manually by breaking the ear from the maize plant;
  • Cutlass could be used to slash the whole plant while the ear is broken from the plant;
  • Combine harvester could be used on a large scale when the moisture content of the crop is low (25-28%);
  • Could be harvested green or dry;
  • Crop is due for harvesting from 60-120 days after planting depending on variety.

(b)   Description of farm records 
(i)   Production record 

  • Shows the yield of crops cultivated on the farm;
  • Shows the produce from livestock/farm animals;
  • Shows the date of collection of farm produce;
  • Helps to forecast yield.

           (ii)  Farm inventory

  • Farm inventory is a record of all the assets on a farm at a particular time;
  • These include buildings, feed, land, animals, produce in storage and the number of machines on the farm;
  • Usually taken at the beginning and end of the year;
  • Shows the value of the assets on a farm;
  • Shows the state of each equipment.

(iii)    Cash book

  • The cash book shows the financial transactions of the farm;
  • These include receipts from goods bought, salary of workers, cost of inputs and output, records of all payment made to the farm;
  • Shows receipts/sales on the left hand side;
  • Shows expenses/payments on the right hand side;
  • Shows date of transactions.

(iv) Labour record

  • Shows the number of hours that they work and dates;
  • Shows particular problems with workers;
  • Shows number of casual or permanent workers and their qualifications;
  • Shows the wages/salaries of workers on the farm;
  • Shows the performance of workers.