Geography Paper 2 WASSCE (PC), 2019

Question 3
(a) State three differences between rail and water transportation.:
(b) In what four ways can improved transportation contribute to the economic development in Tropical African countries?
(c) Outline three problems affecting rail transportation developing in Tropical.



This question was also least attempted in the Section by the candidates. Most candidates could only list out their points in the (b) and (c) parts of the question but could not expatiate on the points listed. However, they were able to state the differences between rail and water transportation in the (a) part of the question. Candidates were expected to answer thus:
The expected answers include:

(a) Differences between rail and water transportation
- rail uses locomotives and coaches while water transportation uses marine vessels
- trains run on rails while water transportation is operated on water bodies
- rail transportation is faster than water transportation
- while railway lines are constructed to link mostly economically viable areas water/transport is not
- water transportation uses ports while rail transportation uses railway stations
- rail transport operates on a fixed track while water transport does not
- water transportation is cheaper in terms of construction and maintenance than rail transportation
- water transportation carries more heavier and bulkier goods than rail
- water transportation is more important in international trade than rail

(b) Ways in which improved transportation can contribute to the economic development in Tropical countries
- employment opportunities
- facilitates national trade
- facilitates international trade
- revenue generation
- income to individuals
- promotion of tourism
- growth of new settlements
- linking areas of production to areas of consumption
- diversification of economy
- increased production
- increase in Gross National Product (GNP)
- stimulates other sectors of the economy
- movement of capital
- access to natural resources
- improved standard of living
- promotes national integration national development
- foreign exchange earning
- diffusion of ideas and innovation
- capacity building/skill acquisition
- encourages region specialization
- movement of people
- ease of administration
- helps in national defence.

(c) Problems affecting rail transportation development in Tropical Africa
- inadequate capital
- high cost of maintenance
- inadequate skilled man power/low level technology
- competition from other modes of transport
- inadequate spare parts
- low patronage
- railways have no wide coverage/remoteness
- not flexible
- poor management/planning/poor time schedule
- narrow gauge
- slow speed
- single tracks/trains can only interchange at station
- rugged terrain e.g. steep gradients
- swamps and marshy lands/dense forests
- presence of many rivers
- unfavourable government policies
- adverse weather conditions
- low level of economic activities
- old/outdated coaches and locomotive engines
- use of different gauges
- poor maintenance.