Animal Husbandry Paper 3 WASSCE (SC), 2017

Question 4

Study specimens V, W and X and answer the questions that follow.

(a) (i) Describe how specimen V could be processed into bone meal.

(ii) Name two nutrients supplied by bone meal in animals feed. [7 marks]

(b) Name two farm animals from which each of specimens W and X could be obtained. [4 marks]

(c) State two functions of each of specimens W and X in farm animals. [4 marks]



This question was also well attempted by the candidates. The (a) (i) part of the questions sought to test the candidates’ ability to prepare some of the feed ingredients utilized in feed formulation. The candidates’ response showed that some of them did not know what bone meal is and its importance in feed formulation. Most candidates only got Calcium right as nutrients derived from bone meal while others wrongly spelt Phosphorus. The candidates’ response in 4(b) and (c) were encouraging. However majority of the candidates could not arrange sequentially the preparation of bone meal

The expected answers include:

4(a)(i)Preparation of bone meal for specimen V (Livestock bone)

- Collection of bones

- Remove contaminants/clean

- Dry the bone

- Burn the dried bone

- Crush/grind the burnt bones

- Bagging/storage of ground bones

(ii) Nutrients supplied by bonemeal in animal feed

- Calcium

- Phosphorus

(b) Animals from which specimens W and X could be obtained

Specimen W (Poultry crop)

- Fowl / chicken/domestic fowl

- Duck

- Guinea fowl

- Turkey

- Goose

- Quail

- Ostrich, pigeon

Specimen X (Rumen)

- Cattle

- Sheep

- Goat

(c) Functions of Specimen W and X in farm animals

Specimen W (Poultry crop)

- Receives swallowed feed

- Temporary storage of feed

- Moistening of feed for easy digestion

- Acidification of feed

Specimen X (Rumen)

- Temporary storage of feed

- Harbours microbes that biodegrade cellulose / fermentation

- Site for synthesis of microbial protein

- Site for synthesis of vitamin B complex

- Assists in the act of rumination

- Site for absorption of nutrients e.g. volatile fatty acids (VFAs)