Building Construction Paper 2,Nov/Dec. 2014  
Questions:   1 2 3 4 5   Main
General Comments

Question 1

  1. (a)        Explain the following terms in relation to trench excavation:
                (i)         timbering;
                (ii)        battering.

    (b)        Explain three reasons for conducting site investigation.

    (c)        Sketch a section through a pad foundation and label the following features:
                (i)         steel reinforcement;
                (ii)        starter column;
                (iii)       starter bars;
                (iv)       blinding.


      Few candidates were able to:

  1. explain the given terms used in trench excavation;
  2. sketch a pad foundation correctly.

However, majority of the candidates failed to:

  1. explain reasons for conducting site investigation;
  2. label the given features in a pad foundation.


 The expected response to question 1 is as given below:

1(a)(i)  Timbering is the term used when the sides of excavation are supported with timber members to prevent it from collapsing.

(ii)        Battering:         This is the term used to describe the protection given to sides of excavation by sloping the sides to a safe angle to prevent collapse.

1(b)      Three reasons for conducting site investigation are:
(i)         Saves the contractor from future legal tussles with the local authority and/or occupiers of adjacent property.
(ii)        Fore-warns the contractor of the type of problem to be expected during the operations and enables him to take steps in advance to solve them.
(iii)       Prevents unnecessary danger to workmen, through proper planning of the operations.
(iv)       It facilitates proper siting of site services (e. g. hutments, access road, water supply) to prevent double handling of materials and equipment.
(v)        It enables the contractor to locate the existence of underground services and fixtures e. g. water supply pipes, telephone lines, underground drainage e. t. c.




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