Government 2, WASSCE (SC), 2018

Question 7


(a)        What is proto nationalism?                                                                               

(b)        Identify four features of proto nationalism.



This question was unpopular among the candidates. The candidates that attempted it performed below average. They failed to develop their points in the (b) part and scored low marks. Nevertheless, the candidates were expected to explain the following points in order to earn good marks:


(a)        Proto-nationalism denotes that the activities of the nationalist movements were `geared towards reforms and participation of the natives in the colonial administration rather than for immediate self-government.


(b)(i)     Demands of the nationalists were aimed at reforms and participation in the colonial administration.                      
(ii)        Movements formed under proto-nationalism were elitist, i.e. dominated by the elites.
(iii)       The proto-nationalism organizers employed constitutional and non-violent means in seeking redress.
(iv)       The leaders were conservative their activities were restricted to the urban centres.
(v)        There was formation of inter-territorial movements such as the National Congress of British West Africa (NCBWA).
(vi)       It was also characterized by the formation of youth movements e.g. Gold Coast Congress etc.
(vii)      Their activities were more popular along the coastal areas.
(viii)     Most of the movements were centred on personalities whose deaths led to their collapse.
(ix)       Most of the leaders were either publishers or editors of newspapers. These newspapers were used to pursue their nationalist objectives